Consideraciones referente a la posibilidad de introducir la dosis fraccionada de la vacuna antipoliomielitis inactivada en el calendario de Inmunizaciones del Niño Latinoamericano.

Antonio Arbo, Luiza Helena Falleiros-Arlant, Eduardo L. López, José Brea del Castillo, Celia Martínez de Cuellar, Gabriela Moreno, Roger Rolón, Javier Cerda, Salim Eguiazú

Resumen


As last notified case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus type 2 was 1999, in 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the withdrawal of the type 2 component of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the introduction of bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries by 2016. WHO recommended also that the withdrawal should be preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization schedules. The introduction of IPV prior to the change of the bOPV in 2016 to trivalent OPV (tOPV) was based on the concept of ensuring that a substantial proportion of the population would be protected against type 2 polio after the removal of the type 2 OPV. However, the world's two producers of IPV (Bilthoven Biologicals and Sanofi) have faced problems in the production of this vaccine and therefore reported reduction in IPV global supply. In response to the possible shortage of IPV, the SAGE and Technical Adviser Group (TAG) of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), in the meeting of March 10, 2017, has urged that countries in the Latinamerican region should replace the routine administration of the full doses of polio inactivated vaccine (IPV-C) in the immunization schedule (administered by intramuscular route) by the administration of a fraction of the full dose in two shots by intradermal route (IPV-f). The possibility of this strategy was analyzed by leaders of opinions gathered by the call of the Paraguayan Pediatric Society with the support of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) and Latin American Association of Pediatrics (ALAPE). The results of the discussion are presented in this document.


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